United Nations Organisation (UNO)
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What is a United Nations Organisation (UNO)?
The United Nations Organisation (UNO), the world-body, was established on October 24, 1945 after the Second World War. It was set up mainly for the prevention of future wars with its headquarters at New York (U.S.A.) and the European office at Geneva. In the beginning there were 51 States who had opted its membership but now the number of member nations has risen to 159.
The aims and objectives of the U.N. are:
(i) To maintain international peace and security.
(ii) To develop friendly relations among nations based on the principle of equal rights and self-determination of all people.
(iii) To help solve international problems—economic, social, cultural and humanitarian.
(iv) To promote respect for human rights, dignity and freedom.
The U.N. believes in the principle of sovereign equality to all member States. It believes that all member States shall settle their disputes by negotiations and peaceful manners. The member States shall refrain from any threat or use of force against the political independence, or territorial integrity of any other State. The member States will not render any assistance to a State against which the U.N. has taken action. The U.N. will not intervene in any matter which is essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any State.
The membership of this World body is open to all peace-loving countries who believe in the aims and objects of the Organisation. New members are made on the recommendations of the Security Council. Members can be expelled or suspended in the same fashion. There are six main organs of the U.N.: (1) General Assembly, (2) Security Council, (3) Secretariat, (4) Economic and Social Council, (5) Trusteeship Council, and (6) the International Court of Justice.
The General Assembly, consisting of the representatives of all the member countries, meets every year for couple of months. Every country has only one vote but can send 5 delegates. Every vote has equal importance irrespective of the size, population, etc., of a member country. All important issues decided by the General Assembly needs a two-third majority, but in ordinary matters simple majority is enough.
Next is Security Council. It is the executive body of the U.N. It is responsible for maintaining the world peace and security. Its five permanent members are: U.K, U.S.A., U.S.S.R., France and China. The 10 non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for two year term. The five permanent members have veto power and its resolution can be passed only unanimously. Its presidency is held for one month in rotation by representatives of its member countries in alphabetical order. Since the permanent member States have veto power, the votes of non-permanent member States do not carry the same weight. The non-permanent members include five from Afro-Asian countries, two from Latin-American countries, two from European countries and one from East European countries. The Security Council functions almost all the 12 months of the year. Its session can be called at 24 hours notice. Its decision requires only nine votes out of fifteen including five those of the permanent members.
The Secretariat of the U.N., headed by the Secretary General, is responsible for the smooth functioning of every department of the organisation. The Secretary General is appointed for a term of five years by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. He is responsible to implement the decisions taken by the Security Council and the General Assembly. He can bring to the notice of the Security Council any matter which he thinks is a threat to the world peace and security.
The Trusteeship Council is responsible for the supervision and administration of Trust Territories placed under its jurisdiction. The Trusteeship Council looks after the interests of people of territories which are not yet fully self-governing.
The Economic and Social Council looks after the world economic, social, cultural, health and other such matters. The Council makes studies in respect of world economic, social, cultural educational, health and such other related matters and then presents a report to the General Assembly with its recommendations. It has 54 members which are elected for a three year term. One-third of its members retire annually. It functions through its ,12 commissions.
International Court of Justice is the main judicial organ of the U.N. It consists of 15 judges who are elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council for a term of nine years. The court elects its President and Vice-President for a term of three years. No two judges can be from the same country. Its headquarters are at the Hague in Netherlands, but it may have its sitting elsewhere as well wherever it thinks it desirable. All member countries are parties to the court. The member countries or the Security Council may refer any dispute to the Court. The different organs of the U.N. may ask from-Wan advisory opinion on any legal matter. The judges of the court are elected on the basis of their legal qualifications and experience and not on their nationality.
Besides these above organs of the U.N., there are many other specialised Agencies like I.L.O., F.A.O., UNESCO, I.C.A.O., W.H.O., UNICEF, I.M.F., etc., to help this World body achieve and implement its objectives and schemes. These Agencies being concerned with all the basic, economical, cultural and educational problems of the world play a significant role in promoting international cooperation and in improving the living standards of the people of the world. These Agencies are doing an immense good to mankind in such areas as economic development, human rights, international trade, care of refugees, education, agriculture, health, housing, child and mother care, family planning, etc. Thus, the allegation that UNO is a useless organisation is not true. No doubt it has not been able to maintain the world peace to the extent it was expected, but it is helpless because it has simply a moral authority and power of persuasion.
संयुक्त राष्ट्र संगठन (UNO) (हिन्दी मे पढ़े)
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